Winter cereals include wheat, barley, oats, canary and triticale.
Insect pest risk
|High risk||Moderate risk||Low risk|
|Soil insects, slugs and snails|
|Leaf curl mite populations (transmit wheat streak mosaic virus) increase with grazing and mild wet summers.||Seed dressings provide some protection, except under extreme pest pressure.|
|Large larvae present when the crop is at late ripening stage.||No armyworm present at vegetative and grain filling stages.|
|Black headed cockchafer (not WA)||Damaging||Present|
|Brown wheat mite||Damaging|
|Present||Present in crop but generally not damaging|
|Damaging||Crop susceptible to damage and loss.|
* Snails are also a grain contaminant at harvest
Key IPM strategies for winter cereals
- Where the risk of establishment pest (e.g. earth mites) incidence is low, regular monitoring can be substituted for prophylactic seed dressings.
- Where establishment pests and aphid infestations are clearly a result of invasion from weed hosts around the field edges or neighbouring pasture, a border spray may be sufficient to control the infestation.
- RLEM, BOM, and other mite species can occur in mixed populations. Determine species composition before making decisions as they have different susceptibilities to chemicals.
- Establishment pests have differing susceptibilities to insecticides. Be aware that the use of some pesticides may select for pests that are more tolerant.
- RLEM has been found to have high levels of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids such as bifenthrin and alpha-cypermethrin.
- Helicoverpa armigera has historically had high resistance to pyrethroids and the inclusion of NPV is effective where mixed populations of armyworm and helicoverpa occur in maturing winter cereals.