Winter cereals include wheat, barley, oats, canary and triticale.
Insect pest risk
|High risk||Moderate risk||Low risk|
|Soil insects, slugs and snails|
|Slugs and snails are rare on sandy soils|
|Leaf curl mite populations (they transmit wheat streak mosaic virus) can be increased by grazing and mild wet summers.||Seed dressings provide some protection, except under extreme pest pressure.|
|Higher risk of barley yellow dwarf virus disease transmission by aphids in higher rainfall areas where grass weeds are present prior to sowing|
Wet summer and autumn promotes survival of aphids on weed and volunteer hosts.
|Low rainfall areas have a lower risk of BYDV infection.|
High beneficial activity (not effective for management of virus transmission).
|Large larvae present when the crop is at late ripening stage.||No armyworm present at vegetative and grain filling stages.|
|Black headed cockchafer||Damaging||Present|
|Brown wheat mite||Damaging|
|Present||Present in crop but generally not damaging|
|Damaging||Crop susceptible to damage and loss.|
* Snails are also a grain contaminant at harvest
Key IPM strategies for winter cereals
- Where the risk of establishment pest incidence is low (e.g. earth mites) regular monitoring can be substituted for the prophylactic use of seed dressings.
- Where establishment pests and aphid infestations are clearly a result of invasion from weed hosts around the field edges or neighbouring pasture – a border spray of the affected crop may be sufficient to control the infestation.
- RLEM, BOM, and other mite species can occur in mixed populations. Determine species composition before making decisions as they have different susceptibilities to chemicals.
- Establishment pests have differing susceptibilities to insecticides (SPs, OPs in particular). Be aware that the use of some pesticides may select for pests that are more tolerant.
- RLEM has been found to have high levels of resistance to synthetic pyrethroidssuch as bifenthrin and alpha-cypermethrin.
- Helicoverpa armigera has historically had high resistance to pyrethroids and the inclusion of NPV is effective where mixed populations of armyworm and helicoverpa occur in maturing winter cereals.
Black headed cockchafers are not known to occur in winter cereals in WA.