Insect pest risk
|High risk||Moderate risk||Low risk|
|Following a crop with reduced hosting capacity for RLEM e.g. faba bean, narrow-leafed lupin and lentils.||Following a crop in which RLEM reproduction is low, or where RLEM have been controlled in prior to summer diapause e.g. chickpeas, winter cereal, albus lupins.Rapid emergence and establishment of seedlings.|
|Aphids and virus|
|Slugs and snails|
|Wet autumn and spring promotes the growth of weed hosts – when weed hosts dry off pests move into crops.||Narrow leaf lupin varieties Tanjil and Mandelup are tolerant to aphid feeding damage .|
|Mites (RLEM, Balaustium, Bryobia)||Damaging||Present|
|Slugs and snails*||Damaging||Damaging|
|Brown pasture looper||Damaging||Damaging|
* Snails may also cause grain contamination at harvest
|Present||Present in crop but generally not damaging|
|Damaging||Crop susceptible to damage and loss.|
Key IPM strategies for lupins
- Economic damage is most likely to occur during establishment and from flowering until maturity.
- Lupins can compensate for early and moderate damage by setting new buds and pods to replace those damaged by pests.
- Excessive early damage can reduce yield and delay harvest.
- Narrow-leafed lupin crops will not be damaged by native budworm until they are close to maturity.
- Pod walls are not penetrated until the caterpillars are over 15 mm in length.
- The decision to spray should not be made until caterpillars are greater than 15 mm and pods are losing their green colour.
- Waiting until near the critical growth stage for damage often allows beneficial insects to reduce native budworm numbers below economically damaging levels.
- Where there is a risk of virus transmission by aphids – refer to management options in insects as virus vectors.
- RLEM has been found to have high levels of resistance to two synthetic pyrethroids – bifenthrin and alpha-cypermethrin.
- Some populations of GPA have been found with resistance to pirimicarb in WA, and to synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates nationally