Incidence and abundance varies by season. Severe infestations can result in a loss of yield and quality.
Etiella flights commonly occur in mid to late September and often coincide with early pod development in pulses.
Larvae burrow into pods within 24 hours of hatching. They feed on pods and seeds, remaining in pods until entire content has been eaten.
Frass is left in the pod, and adjacent pods may be webbed together as larvae move between pods.
Frass and larvae in pods, and adjacent pods webbed together as larvae move between pods.
Seeds usually only partially eaten out, often with characteristic pin-hole damage. Damage is difficult to grade out and unattractive appearance reduces seed quality.
Peanuts are at particular risk during end-of-season droughts when the dry soil allows larval access to the pods.
The etiella degree-day model forecasts timing of initial moth flight using daily max/min temperatures from June 21 onwards. Start monitoring for moth flights when the model reaches 351 D-days. For more information and to download the Excel file, visit SARDI.